TNM Staging for Prostate Cancer

TNM Prostate Cancer Staging

Tumor

    • Tx: primary tumor cannot be assessed
    • T0: no evidence of a primary tumor
    • T1: clinically in apparent tumor neither palpable not visible by imaging
      • T1a: incidental histology – <5% of resected tissue
      • T1b: incidental histology – >5% of resected tissue
      • T1c: increased PSA and subsequent identification by needle biopsy
    • T2: tumor confined within prostate
      • T2a: half of one lobe or less
      • T2b: greater than half of one lobe, none in other
      • T2c: both lobes
    • T3: tumor extends through capsule
      • T3a: extracapsular extravasion
      • T3b: tumor invades seminal vesicles
    • T4: tumor is fixed or invades adjacent structures other than the seminal vesicles (external sphincter, rectum, bladder, lavator muscles, and/or pelvic wall).

Node

  • Nx: regional lymph nodes not assessed
  • N0: no lymph node metastasis
  • N1: metastasis in regional node(s)

Metastasis

  • M0: no distant metastasis
  • M1a: non-regional lymph node(s)
  • M1b: bone(s)
  • M1c: other sites with or without bone disease
    • When more than 1 site of metastasis is present give advanced stage (M1c) is given
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