Hand Exam: Motor 6/13 – Hypothenar Muscles

Hypothenar Muscles: Instruct the patient “Bring your little finger away from the others”
All supplied by deep branch of ulnar nerve 

Abductor Digiti Minimi (ADM)

  • Origin: pisiform
  • Insertion: medial side of base of proximal phalanx of small finger
  • Action: abducts small finger, extends IP joints when MCP joint is stabilized
  • Innervation: deep branch of ulnar nerve

Flexor Digiti Minimi (FDM)

  • Origin: Flexor retinaculum and hook of the hamate
  • Insertion: medial side of base of proximal phalanx of small finger
  • Action: flexes MCP joint
  • Innervation: deep branch of ulnar nerve

Opponens Digiti Minimi (ODM) 

  • Origin: Flexor retinaculum and hook of the hamate
  • Insertion: medial border of 5th metacarpal
  • Action: rolls 5th metacarpal toward thumb, flexes 4th and 5th MCP joints for better thumb opposition
  • Innervation: deep branch of ulnar nerve

The 13 muscle groups you need to test in the hand exam:

  1. FPL
  2. FDP
  3. FDS
  4. Thenar muscles
  5. Interosseous
  6. Hypothenar muscles
  7. EPB and APL
  8. EPL
  9. EDC
  10. EIP and EDM
  11. ECRL and ECRB
  12. ECU
  13. Adductor Pollicis


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