Bag mask ventilation (BMV) is an important means of ventilating and oxygenating a patient unable to protect their airway, or in respiratory depression. BMV can be useful as a primary airway management modality in a prehospital setting, and it is also a useful rescue maneuver for cases of difficult endotracheal intubation.
The following patient features, however, will make BMV difficult; this can be remembered with the helpful mnemonic BOOTS:
- Old Age
Essentially, BMV can be complicated any condition that impairs formation of an effective mask seal. Beards can make establishing an adequate seal difficult, as can any disruption of normal facial anatomy (no teeth, facial fractures, excess facial tissue). Individuals aged over 55 years old are considered to be higher risk for BMV, in part because of decreased upper airway muscle tone. Patients should be screened for obstructive sleep apnea before an elective surgery; also, note that conditions increasing airway resistance (e.g., severe asthma) or decreasing pulmonary compliance (e.g., pulmonary edema) can make ventilation challenging.
- Hung O and Murphy MF (Eds). 2008. Management of the difficult and failed airway. McGraw-Hill.
- Kovacs G and Law JA (Eds). 2011. Airway management in emergencies. People’s Medical Publishing House-USA.
General anesthesia has a bunch of different steps:
- Pre-oxygenation/Pre-induction (some people don’t count this as a step)
- Induction (putting them “to sleep”)
- Maintenance (keeping them asleep)
- Emergence (waking them up)
In North America, many physicians like to use a combination of an analgesic and a sedative followed by the induction agent propofol. Sometimes other agents are used for induction such as etomidate or ketamine, particularly if there is a worry about hemodynamic instability as propofol not uncommonly can cause bradycardia and/or hypotension.
If the patient is going to be intubated, a paralytic (muscle relaxant) is also used to relax the vocal cords to prevent unnecessary trauma as the tube is passed through them. Competitive acetyl choline (ACh) receptor antagonists such as rocuronium or succinylcholine are used for this. The main difference between the two is that succinylcholine is a depolarizing agent – meaning that when it first binds to the ACh receptor, it causes a contraction, whereas rocuronium is non-depolarizing – so when it binds nothing happens. So with this pesky contraction thing why would any one choose succinylcholine? The nice thing is that the half-life is much much shorter than rocuronium, so if things don’t work out quite the way you want them to, or you just want something fast, you don’t need to continue to help the patient breath.
BUY THIS AS A STUDY CARD
Shock is “a syndrome resulting from failure of the cardiovascular system to maintain adequate tissue perfusion.”
Weil-Shubin Classification of Shock
- Cardiogenic – Poor cardiac function reduces forward blood flow.
- Hypovolemic – Loss of intravascular volume caused by: hemorrhage, dehydration, third space loss, vomiting, diarrhea.
- Obstructive – Impair cardiac filling due to external restriction. Caused by cardiac tamponade, tension pneumothorax, pulmonary embolus.
- Distributive – Primarily characterized by loss of peripheral vascular tone. Caused by septic, anaphylactic, adrenal insufficiency, neurogenic, liver failure.
- α1: Vasoconstriction
- α2: Inhibits norepinephrine release, decreases BP, sedative effects
- β1: Positive inoptrope (increases cardiac contractility and stroke volume)
- β2: Vasodilation, broncodilation
- Effects: Causes vasoconstriction and increases cardiac output. Inotrope effect predominates at low doses (< 4.0 mcg/min).
- Disadvantages: Associated with lactic acidosis, hyperglycemia, pulmonary hypertension, tachyarrythmias, and compromised hepatosplanchnic perfusion.
- Use: First-line agent for cardiac arrest and anaphylaxis. Second-line agent for vasopressor and inotrope effects, when other agents have failed.
- Effects: Potent vasoconstrictor. Causes a minor increase in stroke volume and cardiac output.
- Disadvantages: May decrease renal blood flow and increase myocardial oxygen demand. Extravasation at site of intravenous administration may lead to tissue necrosis.
- Use: First line therapy for maintenance of blood pressure.
- Effects: Increases heart rate, cardiac output. Bronchodilator. Some anti-emetic effects. Longer duration than epinephrine. Has indirect actions on adrenergic system.
- Disadvantages: Epedrine losses effect with subsequent doses since part of its effect is indirect, by icreasing NE release, which becomes depleted
- Use: Common vasopressor during anesthesia, but only a temporizing agent in acute shock.
- Effects are dose-dependent:
- < 5 mcg/kg/min – Acts at dopamine receptors only, with mild inotrope effect. Vasodilatory effects purported to improve perfusion through renal and mesenteric vessels; however, there is no clear clinical benefit of dopamine on organ function.
- 5-10 mcg/kg/min – Predominantly β1 adrenergic effects. Increases cardiac contractility and heart rate.
- >10 mcg/kg/min – Predominately α1 effects, causing arterial vasoconstriction and increased blood pressure. Overall decrease in renal and splanchnic blood flow at this dose.
- Disadvantages: Has a high propensity for tachycardia and dysrythmias. Potential for prolactin suppression and immunosuppression.
- Use: First line vasopressor for shock, but may be associated with more adverse outcomes than norepinephrine.
- Effects: Racemic mixture. where the L-isomer acts at α1/β1 receptors and D-isomer acts at β1/β2 receptors. Increases cardiac output and decreases systemic/pulmonary cascular resistance. Can increase splanchnic blood flow and decrease endogenous glucose production.
- Disadvantages: May cause mismatch in myocardial oxygen delivery and requirement. Vasodilation undesirable in septic patients.
- Use: A ‘gold standard‘ inotropic agent in cardiogenic shock with low output and increased afterload. In sepsis, vasodilatory effects should be counteracted by co-administration with norepinephrine.
- Effects: Acts at β2 and dopamine receptors. Causes vasodilation and decreased afterload. Has some positive inotrope effect. Bronchodilatory. Unlike dopamine, dopexamine is not associated with pituitary suppression.
- Disadvantages: Not widely accepted in practice.
- Use: Like dobutamine, useful for cardiogenic shock with decreased output and high afterload.
- Effects: Classic selective α1 agonist, causing vasoconstriction. Rapid onset and short duration.
- Disadvantages: Can reduce hepatosplanchnic perfusion. May cause significant reflex bradycardia.
- Use: Generally considered a temporary vasopressor until more definitive therapy is begun. Useful for vasdilated patients with adequate cardiac output, for whom other vasopressors present risk of tachyarrhythmias.
- Effects: Arousable sedation with preserved respiratory drive. Improved tissue perfusion and renal function. General sympathetic inhibition.
- Disadvantages: Bradycardia and hypotension.
- Use: Not used in acute shock setting, but may be useful in later critical care setting.
Vasopressin (not actually an adrenergic drug)
- Effects: Acts on V1 receptors to cause vasoconstriction. Increases vasculature response to catecholamines.
- Disadvantages: May cause tachycardia and tachyarrythmias. Excessive vasoconstriction can impair oxygen delivery and and cause limb ischemia.
- Use: May be used to augment norepinephrine or other agents. Not typically used alone.
The femoral triangle is a convenient triangle where the femoral nerve, artery and vein pass from the abdomen to the leg. The best part about this is that they’re all quite superficial, making it a great place to stick things in (place catheters, nerve blocks, etc).
Because the femoral triangle is often getting poked at for various reasons, it’s important to know what’s where because you don’t want to be hitting the nerve when you meant for the artery (or vice versa).
The triangle is made up by the sartorius, adductor longus and inguinal ligament and if you just remember NAVVAN.