Jugular Venous Pulse (JVP)

jvpThe jugular venous pulse/pressure (JVP) is a favourite topic on the wards!

The jugular veins fill with blood and pulsate in relation to filling in the right atrium. Since the JVP correlates well with central venous pressure, it’s used as an indirect marker of intravascular fluid status.

Traditionally, the right internal jugular (IJ) vein is used in JVP measurement; it’s preferred since it is directly in line with the superior vena cava and right atrium. The external jugular (EJ) vein is not commonly used to assess the JVP because it has more valves and an indirect course to the right atrium, but EJ is easier to see than IJ, and JVP measurements from both sites correlate fairly well. The left-sided jugular veins are also uncommonly used, since they can be inadvertently compressed by other structures and thus be less accurate!

Learners on the ward are often asked how to identify the JVP and distinguish it from carotid artery pulsations. The mnemonic POLICE describes the distinguishing features of the JVP:

  • Palpation: The carotid pulse is easy felt but the JVP is not.
  • Occlusion: Gentle pressure applied above the clavicle will dampen the JVP but will not affect the carotid pulse.
  • Location: The IJ lies lateral to the common carotid, starting between the sternal and clavicular heads of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM), goes under the SCM, and when it emerges again can be followed up to the angle of the jaw. The EJ is easier to spot because it crosses SCM superficially.
  • Inspiration: JVP height usually goes down with inspiration (increased venous return) and is at its highest during expiration.
    • (Kussmaul’s Sign describes a paradoxical rise in JVP during inspiration that happens in right-sided heart failure or tamponade)
  • Contour: The JVP has a biphasic waveform, while carotid pulse only beats once.
  • Erection/Position: Sitting up erect will drop the meniscus of the JVP, while lying supine will increase filling of the JVP.

To measure the JVP, the patient lies supine in bed at a 30 – 45 degree angle, with their head turned slightly leftward and jaw relaxed. A hard light source (e.g., penlight) pointed tangential to the patient’s neck will accentuate the visibility of the veins. Once the highest point of JVP pulsation is seen, measure high how it is at its maximum, in terms of centimeters above the sternal angle (aka Angle of Louis, at the 2nd costal cartilage). The JVP normally is 4 cm above the sternal angle or lower; increased in fluid overload and decreased in hypovolemia.

  • Beigel R et al. 2013. Noninvasive evaluation of right atrial pressure. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography: 26;1033.
  • Chua Chiaco JMS, Parikh NI, Fergusson DJ. 2013. The jugular venous pressure revisited. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine. 80;638.
  • Cook DJ, Simel DL. 1996. Does this patient have abnormal central venous pressure? Journal of the American Medical Association: 275;630.
  • Vinayak AG, Pohlman AS. 2006. Usefulness of the external jugular vein examination in detecting abnormal central venous pressure in critically ill patients. Archives of Internal Medicine: 166;2132.
  • Wang CS et al. 2005. Does this dyspneic patient in the emergency department have congestive heart failure? Journal of the American Medical Association: 294;1944.

Describing where things are on the hand

hand-descriptions

For being such a small anatomic location, people find it very difficult to describe where on the hand or digits things are actually happening when there is an injury.

I think part of it stems back to medical school when we are taught that the digits all have numbers, the thumb is D1, index D2 and so forth. The problem comes when people say “the 3rd finger” and all of the sudden one has no idea whether they are talking about the long finger (D3) or the ring finger (D4 but then, the thumb doesn’t count as a finger, does it?)

Which finger (digit?!) is which?

This is why it’s always best to call digits by their names, this even goes for metacarpals. It is totally OK, and generally less confusing to call a bone the index finger metacarpal.

  1. Thumb = D1
  2. Index = D2
  3. Long = D3
  4. Ring = D4
  5. Small = D5

Which side of the hand?

The same goes for which side of the hand the problem is on. There is no lateral or medial side to the hand. One could argue that it’s how someone is in anatomical position, so obviously the small finger side is medial, unfortunately very few people walk around in anatomic position and it’s their thumbs that point to the body.

So best to describe side by two things that stay put regardless of how someone has their hands in space: the radius and the ulna.

  • Thumb side = RADIAL
  • Small finger side = ULNAR

Finally for the top and bottom (or is it back and front) of the hands: use the terms DORSAL (where the nails are) and VOLAR (or palmar)

Clotting Cascade – NOW WITH NOACs

clotting_cascade_NOAC

The clotting cascade was one of the first doodles posted on Sketchy Medicine, I’ve now updated it to include some of the Novel Oral Anticoagulants (NOACs): Dabigatran, Rivaroxaban and Apixiban.

Dabigatran (Pradaxa)

  • Selective, reversible direct thrombin inhibitor
  • Is actually a prodrug that reaches peak concentration 2-3 h post ingestion
  • Approved (in Canada) for:  Thromboprophylaxis in atrial fib, post-op, and treatment of VTE and VTE recurrence
  • T1/2: 7-17 h
  • CYP independent (not as many drug-drug interactions)
  • Excreted in urine 95% / Feces 5%
  • Reversal: hemodialysis?
  • Big trial = RELY, REMEDY

Rivaroxaban (Xarelto)

  • Selective, reversible direct factor Xa inhibitor
  • Approved (in Canada) for:  Thromboprophylaxis in atrial fib, post-op, and treatment of VTE and VTE recurrence
  • T1/2: 3-9 h (relatively speedy!)
  • CYP3A4
  • Very good oral bioavailability
  • Almost all of it is protein-bound in the serum
  • Urine 70% / Feces 30%
  • Reversal: ???? (not hemodialysis)

Apixaban (Eliquis)

  • Selective, reversible direct factor Xa inhibitor
  • Approved (in Canada) for:  Thromboprophylaxis in atrial fib, post-op, and treatment of VTE and VTE recurrence (only atrial fib in the USA)
  • T1/2: 8-15
  • CYP3A4
  • Almost all (95%) protein-bound in the serum
  • Urine 30% / Feces 70%
  • Reversal: ???? (not hemodialysis)

Reversal agents:

  • Hemodialysis
    • Only good for agents that aren’t highly protein bound (i.e. dabigatran).
    • Warfarin, rivaroxaban and apixaban are all mostly bound to protein in the serum, so dialysis won’t get rid of them
  • PCC
    • Plasma-derived product containing factors II, IX and X (3-factor PCC) or II, VII, IX and X (4-factor PCC) in addition to variable amounts of proteins C and S, and heparin
  • aPCC
    • Plasma-derived product containing activated factors II, VII, IX and X
  • Recombinant factor VIIa
    • Looks good in test tubes, clinical evidence lacking
  • Idarucizumab
    • Humanized monoclonal antibody against dabigatran
  • Andxanet alfa
    • Recombinant factor Xa derivative
    • Could theoretically be used for rivaroxaban and apixaban

Anticoagulation Assays

Effect of oral anticoagulants on coagulation assays (Jackson II & Becker, 2014)

(Adapted from Jackson II & Becker, 2014)

Approach to bleeding

Managing target-specific oral anticoagulant (Siegal, 2015)

(From Siegal, 2015)

References

  • Jackson II LR & Becker RC. (2014). Novel oral anticoagulants: pharmacology, coagulation measures, and considerations for reversal. Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis, 37(3), 380-391.
  • Ufer M. (2010). Comparative efficacy and safety of the novel oral anticoagulants dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban in preclinical and clinical development. Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 103: 572-585.
  • Siegal DM. (2015). Managing target-specific oral anticoagulant associated bleeding including an update on pharmacological reversal agents. Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis, 1-8.

Streptococcal Pharyngitis

strep-pharyngitis

Sore throats (pharyngitis) are a common complaint in primary and emergency care settings. Most of the time, pharyngitis is caused by viral infection (most commonly rhinovirus).

Streptococcus pyogenes, aka Lancefield group A streptococci, (GAS) is the most common bacterial cause of pharyngitis. GAS infection is important to identify and treat because of its potential for complications:

  • Rheumatic fever
  • Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis
  • Peritonsillar/retropharyngeal abscess
  • Otitis media
  • Mastoiditis
  • Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with Group A streptococci (PANDAS) *controversial!

Signs and symptoms

GAS pharyngitis may also include fever, chills, malaise, headache, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, or maculopapular rash (scarlet fever). Cough, coryza/rhinitis, and conjunctivitis are uncommon symptoms for GAS pharyngitis. However, clinically diagnosing GAS pharyngitis based on history and physical is incredibly unreliable, so patients with a convincing presentation would benefit from laboratory confirmation (i.e., throat culture, rapid antigen detection test of throat swab). The Centor and McIsaac criteria are useful for helping rule out GAS pharyngitis, but shouldn’t be used exclusively to diagnose it.

The Centor criteria are scored based on the presence of:

  1. Fever (subjective or >38 C)
  2. Lack of cough
  3. Tender lymphadenopathy (anterior cervical)
  4. Tonsillar exudate

The MacIsaac criteria add an extra point for patients < 14 years old (since this age group is more prone to GAS pharyngitis) and subtract a point if >45 years old. A low score on these criteria help to exclude GAS pharyngitis, but higher scores indicate a need for lab tests.

The first-line treatment for GAS pharyngitis is penicillin. Other antimicrobial agents vary between different guidelines. Guidelines vary about whether empiric treatment should be considered before lab results have confirmed a diagnosis.

References

  • Aalbers J et al. 2011. Predicting streptococcal pharyngitis in adults in primary care: A systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms and signs and validation of the Centor score. BMC Medicine: 9;67.
  • Kociolek LK, Shulman ST. 2012. Pharyngitis. In: Annals of Internal Medicine: In the Clinic (Cotton D, Taichman D, Williams S, Eds.). ITC3-1.
  • Weber R. 2014. Pharyngitis. Primary Care Clinics in Office Practice: 41;91.
  • Wessels MR. 2011. Streptococcal pharyngitis. New England Journal of Medicine; 364:648.
  • Worrall G. 2011. Acute sore throat. Canadian Family Physician: 57;791.

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) & the corticospinal tract

corticospinal_tract

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative disease of the motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. It progressively affects all the muscles in the body but there is no known cause and no treatment. Only about 5-10% of cases are inherited while the rest are sporadic.

The neurons ALS affects are primarily the upper motor neurons. These are the ones that originate in the brain and travel down the spinal cord. These neurons then synapse with the lower motor neurons in the ventral horn, and it is the lower motor neurons that go directly to the muscles.

In ALS there are both upper motor neuron and lower motor neuron symptoms. As the neurons die, a constellation of symptoms including numbness, weakness and paralysis emerge. Eventually the paralysis progresses leading to inability to speak, swallow and breath. There is no cure for ALS and treatments only help with the symptoms, they do not slow the progression of the disease.

So you may have seen a lot of ice bucket challenges over the last few weeks but please support this cause as it is a horrible disease that up until now had almost no recognition or support. So please donate to The ALS Association (alas.org).

And in case you get tired or jaded seeing your social media full of these videos, watch this one of my father doing it. He’s not an emotional guy, but he has lost more than his fair share of friends to this disease.

donate to help fund ALS research and support from Ali & Mike on Vimeo.

Side Effects of Atypical Antipsychotics

antipsychotics

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Atypical (a.k.a., “second-generation”) antipsychotics are commonly used in the treatment of psychotic disorders, and mood disorders as well. Compared to typical (first-generation) antipsychotics, the atypical antipsychotics have lower affinity for dopamine D2 receptors, and they also act at serotonin (5-HT) receptors (they are antagonists for these receptors). Other neurotransmitter receptors are affected as well, and each atypical antipsychotic preferentially antagonizes different receptors.

When atypical antipsychotics were first introduced, it was hoped that they would be more effective than typical antipsychotics and have fewer extrapyramidal side effects (see below). While these expectations may have been somewhat overblown and atypicals are not markedly superior in decreasing psychosis symptoms, most atypicals certainly have a lower risk of developing extrapyramidal side effects. However, they do come with their own array of side effects.

Extrapyramidal side effects (EPSE): These are movement-related side effects caused by dopamine antagonism. These include acute dystonia (torticollis, an uncomfortable muscular spasm of the neck; as well as spasms of the eyes, tongue, jaw), akathisia (motor restlessness and a need to remain in motion), tardive dyskinesia (repetitive, involuntary movements usually involving facial muscles), parkinsonian symptoms (resting tremor, rigidity, slowed movements), and neuroleptic malignant syndrome (potentially fatal!).
Elevated prolactin (PRL): This can lead to gynecomastia (breast growth) and galactorrhea (milk-production), which can be very distressing for male patients! Can also cause infertility and sexual dysfunction. It also happens with typical antipsychotics.
Weight gain: This can be very a troublesome symptom, and may lead to diabetes in some patients.
Sedation: This may prevent patients from engaging in their usual activities and work.
Orthostatic hypotension: Drop in blood pressure after standing from sitting position.

Some antipsychotics have especially severe side effects. Clozapine, for example, is extremely effective in treating psychosis but can lead to fatal agranulocytosis (drop in white blood cells), as well as tremendous weight gain and sedation. Ziprasidone use can lead to QTc prolongation and increase the risk for serious cardiac arrhythmia.

The above chart shows the relative side effect profiles of eight atypical antipsychotics (aripiprazole, clozapine, lurasidone, olanzepine, paliperidone, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidon) versus two typical antipsychotics (chlorpromazine, haloperidone).

  • Haddad PM, Sharma SG. 2007. Adverse effects of atypical antipsychotics: Differential risk and clinical  implications. CNS drugs; 21:911.
  • Leucht S, Cipriani A, Spineli L, Mavridis D, Orey D, Richter F, Samara M, Barbui C, Engel RR, Geddes JR, Kissling W, Stapf MP, Lassig B, Salanti G, Davis JM. 2013. Comparative efficacy and tolerability of 15 antipsychotic drugs in schizophrenia: A multiple treatments meta-analysis. Lancet; 382:951.
  • Meltzer HY. 2013. Update on typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs. Annual Review of Medicine: 64:393.
  • Sadock BJ, Sadock VA (Eds.). 2007. Serotonin-dopamine antagonists: Atypical antipsychotics. In: Kaplan & Sadock’s Synopsis of Psychiatry. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia PA.

Treatment of scaphoid fractures

scaphoid-flow-chart

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Scaphoid fractures are very common but due to its weird blood supply, the scaphoid is prone to not healing well (review the anatomy of the scaphoid in this doodle). This is why fractures of the scaphoid and even SUSPECTED fractures of the scaphoid are treated very conservatively.

Even if you’re suspicious of a fracture but don’t see one on x-ray, that’s enough to subject someone to a cast for 2 weeks and then bring them back to re-x-ray.

This doodle goes through the basic algorithm for treating scaphoid fractures centred around a timeline to show how long the treatment course can be. There are of course nuances to the management, so take a person’s work and hobbies and handedness into consideration. Also, don’t be afraid to consult your friendly hand/wrist specialist.

Scaphoid bone anatomy and fractures

scaphoid_fracturesThe scaphoid bone is one of the eight carpal bones of the wrist (you can check out this doodle for a refresher).

The scaphoid is the most commonly fractured carpal bone, accounting for almost 70% of fractures. It tends to be young males who break their scaphoid this is both an anatomical thing: younger kids get ligament injuries and older folks break their distal radius and a lifestyle thing: falling on outstretched hands (skateboarding, snowboarding) or throwing a punch both place a lot of force across the scaphoid leading to fractures.

The bad thing about scaphoid fractures is that the blood supply (from a branch of the radial artery) comes from distal to proximal. Since most fractures happen at the waist of the scaphoid the likelihood of having poor blood supply to the fracture site is quite high. It doesn’t help matters that around 80% of the scaphoid is articular surface (joint surface), so if it doesn’t heel well, it can lead to problems with arthritis of the wrist later on.

 

Presentation

Scaphoid fractures present with a pretty classic story and the person is usually swollen and bruised and will have tenderness in their “snuffbox.” So even if the x-ray doesn’t show a fracture, it’s best to treat with a cast for comfort and safety and then recheck them in 2 week’s time (this will be discussed in a separate post).

Z Plasty

z-plasty

The Z-Plasty is one of the most fundamental local flaps. It’s a variation of a transposition flap (meaning simply that it was rotated into a defect right next to it).

The trick is that all three limbs need to be equal and that the angles should be equal.

If the angle between the central limb and the lateral limb is 60°, then there should be an increase of the central limb by 75% (ex: 2cm -> 3.5cm)*

Since the Z-Plasty lengthens and changes the line of tension, it is great for releasing scar contractures.

 

* If you want you can measure the doodle, it’s pretty close to a 75% increase which I found really cool (in that I created it by rotating the flaps). MATHMAGIC!

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